Proposed in 1962, the Internet was created in 1969, known then as the ARPANET, by the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), linking their four main computers in their four research headquarters in SouthWest USA. It had been four years since 1965, when they had first managed to connect two computers over the telephone system. By 1972, many computers in universities across the USA had been connected, and the email, newsgroup and telnet protocols were being developed. Many further internet protocols were developed in the 1970s and 1980s, such as FTP and Gopher, and the underlying TCP/IP protocol replaced the original NCP protocol in the early 1980s. And so the ARPANET became the Internet, a network of university and military computers connected to each other via many other computers, communicating using the TCP/IP protocol. The idea was that, even if the Cold War became real, and portions of the Internet were damaged by nuclear war, the remaining links could take over so the internet could still function.
The World Wide Web (which basically means using the HTTP protocol to retrieve hyperlinked documents) was proposed in March 1989 by Tim Berners-Lee, a British computer specialist, at the European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN) for Swiss scientists, so that they could easily publish and share their research with the 12 nations of the high-energy physics community. He created the world’s first browser, named ‘WorldWideWeb’, in 1990, and released it in 1991. In 1992, browsers became a worldwide tool for transmission of text based information, using the HTTP protocol. In 1993 the NCSA mosaic browser was created and offered the oportunity to use inline images, and colours and hyperlinks as well as plain text. It was also the first browser to run in a graphical interface environment. The first version of Netscape was released in 1994, written by a break-away group from the original Mosaic team.
DOM level 0 : Says how to refer to forms, inputs, images, links and anchors as children of the document object.
Layers DOM : Says how to refer to positioned elements (layers) and modify their style as children of the document object with nested references.
Proprietary DOM : Says how to refer to elements and modify their style using the all collection of the document or parent object and the style child object of the element.
W3C DOM : Says how to refer to elements and modify their style using various getElementBy… methods of the document or parent object and the style child object of the element. Also says how to represent all document elements as a tree structure. Also allows elements to be created, modified or deleted even after the document has loaded.
Active scripting : Microsoft’s user friendly way of saying ‘JScript’.