What is Photoshop?

What is Photoshop?
Adobe Photoshop is one of the most powerful image modification programs on the market today.  It is widely used throughout the world, and has shown its handiwork to the public through altered photos of famous people, such as President Bush.  It is so dominant that when we notice that an image has been altered, we say it has been “Photoshopped.”  While this handout offers some very basic tips on using the tools available in Photoshop, more comprehensive guidance can be accessed on the web or in the help menu of your version of Photoshop.  The version used for this tutorial is Adobe Photoshop CS.

Resizing Images and Size Guide

When working with images for a website, you will need to resize your images to suit your particular purpose. Here is a basic guide that can help you decide on what is suitable. (The units used here are pixels, which are standard units across all computer platforms. The conversion between pixels and inches is roughly 1” = 72 pixels or 1cm = 28 pixels) To use this particular unit of measure, you will need to adjust you preference settings by selecting Edit > Preferences > Units and Rulers and changing the units and rulers to measure in pixels.

Modify Color and effects

Photoshop has many powerful tools to modify the color and effects of images.  Here are brief summaries of each of them:
I.    Grayscale: Changes everything to different shades of gray
II.    Indexed Color: Uses at most 256 colors, so that your file size will be low.  Best for .GIFs and simple clip art.
III.    RBG Color: Best one: 16.7 million colors
IV.    Lab Color: The intermediate color model Photoshop uses when converting from one color mode to another.
V.    Multichannel: Uses 256 shades of gray, based on the color value of each pixel.  This is like the old western style.
VI.    8 / 16 bits per channel: Distinctions in color.  16 has finer distinctions, but can also make the file twice the size as 8.

Photoshop Requirements

One thing to keep in mind about using Photoshop however is that since Photoshop is so powerful, it requires a fairly souped up working environment.
Specifically, it would be a good idea to have at least 32MB of RAM. After all, as a web designer, you will be tasking your system while developing. Often you will have two browsers; Photoshop, an HTML editor, a word processor, and two or three ftp/telnet sessions open all at one time. Without enough resources, your computer will not have enough gusto to keep up with you
Another downside to Photoshop is that it can be rather expensive to get the latest and greatest version. However, this tutorial is written with this in mind. We have limited our discussion mainly to 3.0 basics (which still apply for 4.0 users). These basics represent the foundation of your skills with Photoshop regardless of the version. Thus, after reading through this tutorial, you will have what you need to make stunning web graphics by investing in a 1/4 price year old version of Photoshop. Eventually, of course, you will want to upgrade.

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How to design a website layout in Photoshop

This tutorial will teach you how to design the web site layout seen below in Photoshop.  You will also learn how to convert this to an optimized html site in the next few tutorials.

This tutorial is part of a 4 page tutorial on how to create a simple web site using Photoshop and Dreamweaver.

We have designed a layout with a black background with an area for the logo, an eye-catching graphical header, navigation links, content and images.

Remember while designing your layout, you need to define spaces for the following :

Header – This could be a graphic banner
Buttons – Links for home, about us, contact us etc.
Content area
Copyright Information

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Different type of Websites

Websites are written in, or with dynamism converted to, HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language) and are accessed using a software interface classified as a user agent. Web pages can be viewed or otherwise accessed from a range of computer-based and Internet-enabled devices of various sizes, including desktop computers, laptops, PDAs and cell phones.

A website is hosted on a computer system known as a web server, also called an HTTP server, and these terms can also refer to the software that runs on these systems and that retrieves and delivers the web pages in response to requests from the website users. Apache is the most commonly used web server software (according to Net craft statistics) and Microsoft’s Internet Information Server (IIS) is also commonly used.

Structured by function, a website may be

  • a personal website
  • a commercial website
  • a government website
  • a non-profit organization website

Website’s Classification


A static website is one that has web pages stored on the server in the format that is sent to a client web browser. It is primarily coded in Hypertext (HTML).

Simple forms or marketing examples of websites, such as classic website, a five-page website or a brochure website are often static websites, because they present pre-defined, static information to the user. This may include information about a company and its products and services via text, photos, animations, audio/video and interactive menus and navigation.

This type of website usually displays the same information to all visitors. Similar to handing out a printed brochure to customers or clients, a static website will generally provide consistent, standard information for an extended period of time. Although the website owner may make updates periodically, it is a manual process to edit the text, photos and other content and may require basic website design skills and software.

In summary, visitors are not able to control what information they receive via a static website, and must instead settle for whatever content the website owner has decided to offer at that time.

They are edited using four broad categories of software:

Text editors, such as Notepad or Text Edit, where content and HTML markup are manipulated directly within the editor program

WYSIWYG offline editors, such as Microsoft FrontPage and Adobe Dreamweaver (previously Macromedia Dreamweaver), with which the site is edited using a GUI interface and the final HTML markup is generated automatically by the editor software

WYSIWYG online editors which create media rich online presentation like web pages, widgets, intro, blogs, and other documents.

Template-based editors, such as Rapid weaver and iWeb, which allow users to quickly create and upload web pages to a web server without detailed HTML knowledge, as they pick a suitable template from a palette and add pictures and text to it in a desktop publishing fashion without direct manipulation of HTML code.


A dynamic website is one that changes or customizes itself frequently and automatically, based on certain criteria.

Dynamic websites can have two types of dynamic activity: Code and Content. Dynamic code is invisible or behind the scenes and dynamic content is visible or fully displayed.

Generic code

The first type is a web page with dynamic code. The code is constructed dynamically on the fly using active programming language instead of plain, static HTML.

A website with dynamic code refers to its construction or how it is built, and more specifically refers to the code used to create a single web page. A dynamic web page is generated on the fly by piecing together certain blocks of code, procedures or routines. A dynamically-generated web page would call various bits of information from a database and put them together in a pre-defined format to present the reader with a coherent page. It interacts with users in a variety of ways including by reading cookies recognizing users’ previous history, session variables, server side variables etc., or by using direct interaction (form elements, mouseovers, etc.). A site can display the current state of a dialogue between users, monitor a changing situation, or provide information in some way personalized to the requirements of the individual user.

Dynamic content

The second type is a website with dynamic content displayed in plain view. Variable content is displayed dynamically on the fly based on certain criteria, usually by retrieving content stored in a database.

A website with dynamic content refers to how its messages, text, images and other information are displayed on the web page, and more specifically how its content changes at any given moment. The web page content varies based on certain criteria, either pre-defined rules or variable user input. For example, a website with a database of news articles can use a pre-defined rule which tells it to display all news articles for today’s date. This type of dynamic website will automatically show the most current news articles on any given date. Another example of dynamic content is when a retail website with a database of media products allows a user to input a search request for the keyword Beatles. In response, the content of the web page will spontaneously change the way it looked before, and will then display a list of Beatles products like CD’s, DVD’s and books.

Purpose of dynamic websites

The main purpose of a dynamic website is automation. A dynamic website can operate more effectively, be built more efficiently and is easier to maintain, update and expand. It is much simpler to build a template and a database than to build hundreds or thousands of individual, static HTML web pages.

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What is Web Design?

Web design is the skill of creating presentations of content (usually hypertext or hypermedia) that is delivered to an end-user through the World Wide Web, by way of a Web browser or other Web-enabled software like Internet television clients, microblogging clients and RSS readers.

The intent of web design is to create a web site. A collection of electronic documents and applications that reside on a web srver(s) and present content and interactive features/interfaces to the end user in form of Web pages once requested. Such elements as text, bit-mapped images (GIFs, JPEGs) and forms can be placed on the page using HTML/XHTML/XML tags. Displaying more complex media (vector graphics, animations, videos, sounds) requires plug-ins such as Adobe Flash, QuickTime, Java run-time environment, etc. Plug-ins are also embedded into web page by using HTML/XHTML tags.

Improvements in browsers’ compliance with W3C standards prompted a widespread acceptance and usage of XHTML/XML in conjunction with Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) to position and manipulate web page elements and objects. Latest standards and proposals aim at leading to browsers’ ability to deliver a wide variety of content and accessibility options to the client possibly without employing plug-ins.

Typically web pages are classified as static or dynamic:

Static pages don’t change content and layout with every request unless a human (web master/programmer) manually updates the page. A simple HTML page is an example of static content.

Dynamic pages adapt their content and/or appearance depending on end-user’s input/interaction or changes in the computing environment (user, time, database modifications, etc.) Content can be changed on the client side (end-user’s computer) by using client-side scripting languages (JavaScript, JScript, Actionscript, etc.) to alter DOM elements (DHTML). Dynamic content is often compiled on the server utilizing server-side scripting languages (Perl, PHP, ASP, JSP, ColdFusion, etc.). Both approaches are usually used in complex applications.

With growing specialization in the information technology field there is a strong tendency to draw a clear line between web design and web development.

Web design is a kind of graphic design intended for development and styling of objects of the Internet’s information environment to provide them with high-end consumer features and aesthetic qualities. The offered definition separates web design from web programming, emphasizing the functional features of a web site, as well as positioning web design as a kind of graphic design.

The process of designing web pages, web sites, web applications or multimedia for the Web may utilize multiple disciplines, such as animation, authoring, communication design, corporate identity, graphic design, human-computer interaction, information architecture, interaction design, marketing, photography, search engine optimization and typography.

  • Markup languages (such as HTML, XHTML and XML)
  • Style sheet languages (such as CSS and XSL)
  • Client-side scripting (such as JavaScript)
  • Server-side scripting (such as PHP and ASP)
  • Database technologies (such as MySQL and PostgreSQL)
  • Multimedia technologies (such as Flash and Silverlight)
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Before you begin designing Two Important Points

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Before you begin designing Two Important Points

There are just a couple of things to remember before you begin designing your very own Website.

1.  The Internet is an ever changing market.  To stay on top, you must stay informed.  Within this site, you’ll find many useful resources to help you keep informed about Internet changes and news.

2.  Your Website’s success depends on your willingness to add new updates, delete old news, find helpful resources for your visitors, deliver what you’ve promised, and provide a useful and informative contribution to the World Wide Web.

Okay, ready to learn how to create a web site?

Getting Started

HTML, or HyperText Markup Language, is the building block of creating a web site. Writing HTML is similar to creating a very basic computer program where the user inputs basic codes into a file that is downloaded and run by other users, known as visitors.

Before writing HTML you must decide which HTML program you are going to use to create your web page. You can find a basic listing of HTML editors on our HTML editors section of our web site. In addition, you can also create a web site using a basic text editor such as notepad, wordpad, and now even Microsoft Word. Which editor you use to start creating your own page is up to you.

Once you have obtained an HTML editor and are ready to begin setting up your web site, think about how you wish the page to setup or look, maybe even draw out your ideas. Below are some considerations to think about.

How are you going to store all the files? Are all the files going to be in the same folder, or directory, or if you plan on having a lot of different pictures and files, would it be better to separate the pages, files, and pictures into separate directories?
Are all your HTML files you are going to be stored going to be stored as .HTM or .HTML files? There is no advantage or disadvantage of going with .htm or .html; however, it is a good idea to stick with the same extension for your complete site.
Do you plan on having a template for the page? Are all the pages going to have the overall same look and feel?
How is navigation going to be handled? Do you think it would be better to have a menu on the left side of each page, maybe the bottom of the page, or at the top of the page?

Writing HTML

Once you have an HTML editor and your web page and folder structure has also been setup, you are ready to begin creating your page. Begin by creating a file named index.htm or index.html, this will be your start page. All servers on the Internet look for an index file if no file is specified.

For example, when typing http://www.somename.com, the server is really accessing http://www.somename..com/index.htm.

Once you are in the blank index.htm or index.html file, we recommend creating the below source code into your page. Keep in mind some HTML editors may automatically place this code in your page for you. If this is the case, or you have a WYSIWYG HTML editor that allows you to simply design the page and not create the HTML, you can skip to the next section.

<title>My first web page</title>
Your page goes here

The above section is the main body of your web page. As you can see, the section starts of with <html>, which is defining that everything within <html> is HTML language. Next, you have <head>, which is defining the heading of your HTML document. Third, we have the <title> section; within this section you will be able to Title your web site. Finally, you have the <body> section, which is where your complete web page will be contained.

The below code is a simple basic page to get you familiarized with some of the most commonly used HTML commands; all of the below HTML information would be placed in the <body> </body>section.

<center><h1>Welcome to my web page<h1></center>

Hello and welcome to my first web site.
These are my favorite links:

<a href=”http://www.computerhope.com”>Computer Hope</a>

As you can see from looking at the above code you will realize that the basic HTML commands are fairly simple to use. First, we start off with <center>; this is telling the browser to center the information within these tags. Next, you have the <h1> statements, these are the heading statements, which tell the browser to display the text in a large font. Next is the <hr> tag, which tells the browser to display a line straight across the screen. The third line contains <br> which is a simple method of creating a break on the page. Finally, the “a href” tag is a method of creating a link to another location.

Additional HTML commands and HTML information can be found on our main HTML / Web design help page.

Viewing the web site

Now that you have created a basic web site you may want to verify how the web site looks. Being that you have files locally stored on your computer you will not need to connect to the Internet to view your web page.

Open the computer browser and type the location of your web page. For example, if you have placed the index.htm or index.html file within the webpage folder, you would simply type in the browser c:\webpage\index.htm or c:\webpage\index.html if you are using an IBM compatible computer. If you have Microsoft Windows or you are using an Apple computer, you can also double-click on the created file to open the file in a browser automatically for you.

Note: Some HTML editors also allow you to preview a page by clicking the preview button within the HTML editor.

Viewing a web page locally allows you to experiment with a web page and make sure it works before taking the time to upload the page to a server. This also allows users who may not have a web host, or place to store their web page, the ability to create and experiment with their own web page.
Displaying images

Now that you have created a basic web site you can improve the looks and feel of the web site by adding images to the web page. There are two methods of displaying images on your web page. The first method is linking to another web site to display the images by using the below code.

<img src=”http://www.computerhope.com/logo.gif”>

Using the above HTML tag you can display images off of other web sites. However, we recommend that you do not do this if possible as it can cause your web page to load slower and could cause missing pictures to occur if the other site removes or moves the location of the picture to an alternate location. The alternate and recommended method would be to use the below code.

<img src=”mypic.gif”>

or if you have an images folder:

<img src=”images/mypic.gif”>

If the mypic.gif exists on the computer the picture will be displayed on your web site. Adding pictures is an excellent way to spruce up the web site. However, do not get to carried away, adding several images (especially animated images) can look tacky and slow down the time the web page loads. Remember, the average time someone looks at a web site is 10 seconds.

Finally, never place large sized images on your home page. Large images will slow down the web page dramatically and may cause the visitor to leave. If you would like a large picture on your web site, it is recommended that you create a small image called a ‘thumbnail’. If the user is interested they can click the thumbnail to view the larger image.
Understanding directories

When creating other directories (folders) on the computer that contain other images or HTML files, it is important that you understand the directory structure of how the server will access other folders. Many times, users will mistakenly create a bad directory that allows the page to work offline but not on the Internet or from another computer.

When accessing files in other directories that are ahead of the current directory, first specify the directory and then the file name. For example, if you are trying to access or display the image file mypic.gif in the image folder, create the link as shown below.


Notice in the above line that the directory is first specified and then the file.

Next, if you wanted to access the image file mypic.gif that is back one directory, you would want to use the below example.


In this example, notice the two dots (..) these tell the browser that you want to go back one directory. If you wanted to go back one directory and then into another directory you would first do ../ and then the directory as shown in the below example.


This rule can be applied to as many directories back as possible. For example, if you wanted to go back three directories and then go into the images directory, then you would use the below example.


A common mistake with PC (Windows) users is that the HTML editor may specify the file to be located in the computer hard disk drive such as c:\mywebpage\image\mypic.gif. This will work work fine on the computer hard disk drive (locally); however, when posted on the Internet, no one but the person with the file locally will be able to display the file.

Finally, remember when specifying the directory that you are using a forward slash (/) and not a back slash.
Case sensitive

It is important to remember that many of the Internet servers are utilizing Unix or a *nix variant. With Unix, file names are case sensitive. This means if you link to a file such as Mypage.htm and the file on the server is mypage.htm, the server will be unable to find it because of the capital M. We always recommend that a user create his or her files and links in all lowercase.

Posting the web site

Posting the web site files to the Internet is one of the most complicated steps of setting up a web site for most users. In order for the web page to be viewable by other users, the user must post his or her web site on a server where it can be viewed by individuals on the Internet.

Because of the wide diversity of methods of posting a web site, we will explain one of the most commonly used methods of posting your web site.

Most Internet Service Providers and Web hosting companies provide FTP (File Transfer Protocol) access that allows the users to simply copy files from your computer to the server. PC users have two possibilities; one is to use the FTP program included with Windows and the other is to download a FTP program, such as CUTEFTP, off of the Internet. Using one of these tools should enable the user to send his or her files, providing the server allows FTP access.

Windows FTP

To use Windows FTP, the user must open a DOS window by

clicking Start


Type the command.

At the prompt, switch to the directory that contains your web site. For example, if your web site is at c:\webpage; at the C:\>, type cd webpage. Once at the appropriate directory, type FTP, which should take you to FTP>. Finally, at this prompt, type open and then the name of the server or IP address. For example:


Open My Computer

Enter the FTP address in the Explorer address bar

Press enter

Click “File>Login” to enter login details

open ftp.computerhope.com

This should then prompt you for a username and password, enter both appropriately and then see the second to last paragraph.

CUTEFTP or other FTP client

Thousands of FTP clients are available through the web. One of the more popular FTP programs is CUTEFTP. Using these Windows / MAC applications the user needs to simply specify the ISP or Web hosting server and login information.

Finally, once you are connected to the server you will need to locate the folder that will contain your web page. Generally speaking, this folder is public_html. If you are using Windows FTP, simply type cd public_html or type dir to see what the folder is named. Or open the folder through CUTEFTP or the FTP client program your are opening. Once in this folder, you can send your HTML files to the server to access them over the Internet. Windows FTP users to send your files, for example, type send index.htm.

We understand this can be a complicated process; however, generally, your Internet Service Provider or Web Hosting company will have instructions for posting your web site and sometimes may even have a web based client, which allows the users to simply transfer their files using a web site and not having to follow the above tedious commands. If following the above recommendations you are unable to post your web site, we recommend that you review through your Internet Service provider or Web Hosting company documentation.

A listing of other free and commercial FTP clients can also be found through our FTP dictionary definition.
Additional information about the Windows FTP program can also be found on our FTP page.

Setting up a domain

Users who want their own unique domain or URL may want to know who to go through to setup their own personal domain and/or what is needed. In the below section we have listed additional information about setting up your own domain as well as what is commonly required to setup a domain.

Determining name — Before attempting to setup a domain, you must first determine what names are available on the Internet. It’s very likely that your first choice is already taken. To determine what domain name is available, do a whois lookup on the domain. For example, click here to open the Network Solutions page in a new window. On their page you can find a “WHOIS” link on the page. Using this tool you can search for available names. Although the majority of the Internet users are used to typing .COM as the extension of the domain, if your domain name is already being used, you may want to consider .NET or .ORG as possible alternatives.

Think about the name — Before registering the name, make sure to think about some important considerations. Are there other companies or copyrights your domain name conflicts with? Is the domain name too long for people to type in? Is the name hard to remember or type in? Are there similar addresses on the Internet users may get confused with? Many of these questions can be answered by using a search engine to search for similar names and/or asking friends and family about your domain name.

Getting an ISP / Web host — If you do not already have an ISP or web host that will be storing your files, you should consider first looking at the available ISPs in your area and/or available web hosts on the Internet. Some companies may assist you in registering your domain for you if you are already hosting your files through them. If you do not already have a web host, do a search for “web host” on any popular search engine and decide which host best meets your needs. Additional information about what to look for in an ISP / web host can be found by clicking here.

Domain Name Server (DNS) — If your ISP / web host does not setup or register domains for you or you wish to register your own name for a cheaper price, you will need to know your ISP or Web Host’s DNS server address. This is the computer that allows other computers to know what address to point the domain name to. You will need a Primary, Secondary and/or alternate DNS server address. For example, the DNS IP Computer Hope uses is “”; although your address will be different from this address you should get a similar address from your ISP or web host.

Register — Once you have thought about and read through all of the above steps and are ready to register, decide who you plan on registering through. There are thousands of different companies that are capable of registering your domain name. We recommend going through network solutions; however, also performing a search on any popular search engine will give you a great list of other available options.


Why should I setup a domain name?  A domain can be a very important part of having a web site that you intend to generate revenue from or you would like to have easily accessed and remembered. A domain allows a user and potential customer to easily remember the name for your web site; for example, www.computerhope.com is much easier to remember and type than http://www.webhost.com/user/~computerhope.

What is a domain name alias or domain alias? A domain alias is a cheaper solution that will point a domain name to a web page. For example, a user would type http://www.computerhope.com but be forwarded to http://www.webhost.com/user/~computerhope. Although this is a cheaper solution users should consider if this is the best solution for their site.

Web Hosting

Web hosting allows for users to have another company store and maintain your web site for you or your company. A web hosting company may or may not be needed depending upon what is available through your Internet Service Provider. Check with your Internet Service provider to see if they offer a comparable solution to other Web Hosting companies. When setting up with a web hosting company, we recommend that you verify the below information with them before setting the page up.

Domain Registration – Verify that the company allows your company to have a domain such as www.computerhope.com and see if they can set it up for you, and if so, how much will it cost.

E-Mail forwarding – See if the company offers e-mail forwarding where you will be able to forward e-mail from username@yourdomain.com to another e-mail address such as your personal e-mail address.

Support – Verify the hours of operation for phone support and check to see if the number is a toll-free number.

Changing companies – Verify their policy and how easy it will be for changing to another company if the time comes.

Site Statistics – While not a necessity, it is a nice feature; see if the company offers site statistics for your web page, allowing you to monitor how well your web site is doing.

Business Account – See if the company will charge you additional fees if you begin to sell something off of your web site.

Bandwidth Limitations – Verify that the company does not have a strict bandwidth limitation, which may limit the amount of traffic you are capable of receiving. It is important to realize that all companies will have a limit but verify it is something that is not expected to be broken easily.

Front Page Extensions – If you are using Front Page, verify that you will be able to have Front Page Extensions. Although not all Front Page users use these features, it is still a good idea to verify this is available.

CGI / Perl / PHP Scripts – While you may not immediately setup a CGI / Perl script, it is important for future use that you verify the server supports this. This allows you to setup counters, message boards, guest books and other various features in the future.

Mover – Responsive Coming Soon / Under Constraction Premium Template


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How to Design a Website for Beginners

Few years back, when I was first introduced to the website design and development, I thought it would be take more more to learn everything there is to know about building a website from specification.

It all seemed so overwhelming! I still haven’t learned “all the facts” about Web design or the Internet, but I did make one important discovery on this journey – I didn’t have to know everything about how to create my own website to build a very effective and intriguing Internet presence.

The Webmaster Course website is living online proof that, with minimum Internet knowledge, beginners can design an efficient Internet site in just a short period of time.  Throughout these web pages, you’ll find the resources and step by step instructions you will need to design your own complete business or personal Website.

Designing Your Own Website is the First Step
Whether you’re thinking of starting an online business or just adding your “personal” touch to the World Wide Web, designing your own Website is the first step toward reaching your goal.  You could hire some fancy designer to create your site for you, but that’s no fun.  Besides, you want your Website to reflect your personality, your decisions and hard work, and your unique design style, right?

Here are just a few ideas to get your wheels turning…

Below are ideas both for developing a personal or business Website.  With these ideas, you’ll be able to develop a basic outline for your new Website. I have discussed about different types of websites into other articles also.

Personal Websites:

Share your family tree with others and find long, lost relatives.
Build a site around your favorite hobby.  Let others in the world know your expertise and knowledge about how to do it better.  You can include pictures, demonstrations, and detailed instructions.
Start a community for your family.  Update family reunions (photos, minutes, dates, locations, and times), keep a database of birthdays and “new” births, have a “kids’ only” section, and even start a family picture album for all the different members of your family – there’s tons of unique ways to build your family community!
Offer a volunteer Website for your Church or your favorite organization – Learn how to design a web page for boy/girl scouts, charity events, cancer foundations, etc…


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What is website?

A website is a collection of related web pages, images, videos or other digital assets that are addressed relative to a common Uniform Resource Locator (URL), often consisting of only the domain name, or the IP address, and the root path (‘/’) in an Internet Protocol-based network. A web site is hosted on at least one web server, accessible via a network such as the Internet or a private local area network.

A web page is a document, typically written in plain text interspersed with formatting instructions of Hypertext Markup Language (HTML,XHTML). A web page may incorporate elements from other websites with suitable markup anchors.

Web pages are accessed and transported with the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), which may optionally employ encryption (HTTP Secure, HTTPS) to provide security and privacy for the user of the web page content. The user’s application, often a web browser, renders the page content according to its HTML markup instructions onto a display terminal.

All publicly accessible websites collectively constitute the World Wide Web.

The pages of a website can usually be accessed from a simple Uniform Resource Locator (URL) called the homepage. The URLs of the pages organize them into a hierarchy, although hyperlinking between them conveys the reader’s perceived site structure and guides the reader’s navigation of the site.

Some websites require a subscription to access some or all of their content. Examples of subscription sites include many business sites, parts of many news sites, academic journal sites, gaming sites, message boards, web-based e-mail, services, social networking websites, and sites providing real-time stock market data.


The World Wide Web (WWW) was created in 1989 by CERN physicist Tim Berners-Lee. On 30 April 1993, CERN announced that the World Wide Web would be free to use for anyone.

Before the introduction of HTML and HTTP, other protocols such as file transfer protocol and the gopher protocol were used to retrieve individual files from a server. These protocols offer a simple directory structure which the user navigates and chooses files to download. Documents were most often presented as plain text files without formatting or were encoded in word processor formats.

Tim Berners-Lee

tim-berners-leeA graduate of Oxford University, Tim Berners-Lee invented the World Wide Web, an internet-based hypermedia initiative for global information sharing while at CERN, the European Particle Physics Laboratory, in 1989. He wrote the first web client and server in 1990. His specifications of URIs, HTTP and HTML were refined as Web technology spread.

He is the 3Com Founders Professor of Engineering in the School of Engineering with a joint appointment in the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at the Laboratory for Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence ( CSAIL) at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) where he also heads the Decentralized Information Group (DIG). He is also a Professor in the Electronics and Computer Science Department at the University of Southampton, UK.

He is the Director of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), a Web standards organization founded in 1994 which develops interoperable technologies (specifications, guidelines, software, and tools) to lead the Web to its full potential. He is a founding Director of the Web Science Trust (WST) launched in 2009 to promote research and educaton in Web Science, the multidisciplinary study of humanity connected by technology.

He is also a Director of the World Wide Web Foundation, launched in 2009 to fund and coordinate efforts to further the potential of the Web to benefit humanity.

During 2009 Tim also advised the UK Government’s “Making Public Data Public” initiative.

In 2001 he became a Fellow of the Royal Society. He has been the recipient of several international awards including the Japan Prize, the Prince of Asturias Foundation Prize, the Millennium Technology Prize and Germany’s Die Quadriga award. In 2004 he was knighted by H.M. Queen Elizabeth and in 2007 he was awarded the Order of Merit. In 2009 he was elected a foreign associate of the National Academy of Sciences. He is the author of “Weaving the Web”.

Different type of Website

Structured by function, a website may be

  • A Personal Website
  • A Commercial Website
  • A Government Website
  • A non-profit Organization Website
  • A Educational Website
  • A Ecommerce Website

It could be the work of an individual, a business or other organization, and is typically dedicated to some particular topic or purpose. Any website can contain a hyperlink to any other website, so the distinction between individual sites, as perceived by the user, may sometimes be blurred.

Websites are written in, or dynamically converted to, HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language) and are accessed using a software interface classified as a user agent. Web pages can be viewed or otherwise accessed from a range of computer-based and Internet-enabled devices of various sizes, including desktop computers, laptops, PDAs and cell phones.

A website is hosted on a computer system known as a web server, also called an HTTP server, and these terms can also refer to the softwarethat runs on these systems and that retrieves and delivers the web pages in response to requests from the website users. Apache is the most commonly used web server software (according to Netcraft statistics) and Microsoft’s Internet Information Server (IIS) is also commonly used.

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